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  • GC-MS Analysis of Residues Reveals Nicotine in Two Late Prehistoric Pipes from CA-ALA-554 

    Eerkens, Jelmer; Tushingham, Shannon; Lentz, Kari; Blake, Jennifer; Ardura, Dominique; Palazoglu, Mine; Fiehn, Oliver (Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology, 2012)
    Three pipes were recovered during excavations at CA-ALA-554. Ethnographically, Native Californians smoked a range of plants, the most common of which is tobacco, in pipes. In order to determine the specific uses of these ...