EFFECTS OF HYPNOSIS ON PHANTOM LIMB PAIN
Neighbors, Dan Eric
MetadataShow full item record
This research examined the efficacy of hypnosis for relieving phantom limb pain (PLP) in a well-defined target population consisting of only people with non-chronic illness caused amputations; a group that is yet to be specifically targeted in hypnosis for PLP treatment studies. This study included both a between and within subjects design, with treatment as the between subjects variable (i.e., hypnosis versus relaxation) and time as the within group variable (i.e., pre-treatment versus two, four, and six weeks post-treatment). The treatment and control groups each received four one-hour-sessions and used audio-tapes between sessions beginning from the second session on. Level of hypnotizability was measured using the Elkins Hypnotizability Scale. Dependent measures for both within and between group comparisons included the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Daily Pain Rating Scale (DPRS), and Brief Pain Inventory Short-Form (BPI). The hypnosis treatment group also used the Present Pain Intensity Scale (PPIS) to measure pain before and after intervention each session. No significant differences were found between groups at pre-treatment (i.e., MPQ, PRI, DPRS, BPI, level of hypnotizability, age, PLP duration, pain severity, or quality of life). The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and the Mann-Whitney U were used to analyze within and between group comparisons, respectively. Using a significance level cut-off of .05, the hypnosis group showed significant improvements on the MPQ, DPRS, and BPI at all follow up time periods. Significant differences were also observed between treatment types. That is, hypnosis produced significantly lower scores than the control group for each dependent measure at certain comparison periods; on the MPQ at the six week follow-up period; on the DPRS at the two and six week follow-up periods; and on the BPI at the two week follow-up period. This study supports the use of hypnosis for treating PLP and improving quality of life for people with amputation due to non-chronic illness causes.