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Participation of noradrenergic cell groups A 1 and A2 in glucoregulation
The body's response to glucoprivation employs such activities as increased food intake and an increased adrenal medullary response to help maintain the level of glucose in the body and brain. Noradrenergic and adrenergic ...
Whisker stimulation increases the number of tumor necrosis factor Î±- immunoreactive cells in the primary somatosensory cortex
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) is a cytokine that plays an important role in neural plasticity as well as in the regulation of sleep. Immunohistochemistry was used to locate and analyze TNFa- and Fos-immunoreactive ...
The effects of electroconvulsive shock on addiction behavior in rats
Cocaine addiction is a widespread problem in the United States, lacking an appropriate treatment. Electroconvulsive shock (ECS) may repair malfunctioning dopamine neurons via induction of synaptic plasticity, providing an ...
The role of hypothalamic peptides in consummatory feeding behavior
Carter, K. and Lester, E. The role of hypothalamic peptides in consummatory feeding behavior. There are two components of feeding behavior that are highly regulated, an appetitive component, which involves the motivated ...
Time of day differences in the number of cytokine-immunoreactive cells in the rat visual and somatosensory cortices: test for activity dependence of cytokine proteins
Sleep is posited to be dependent upon wake activity that in turn increases activity-dependent sleep regulatory substances, such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa or TNF). TNFa ...
Time of day affects extinction of cocaine induced conditioning and TNFa mRNA levels in specific brain regions
Why we sleep is not known, although there are a number of theories. One of the most recent theories, put forth by Krueger and Obal (1993) maintains that we sleep to preserve synaptic efficacy, and during the wake state ...