World at War: Mexican Identities, Insurgents, and the French Occupation, 1862-1867
Moreno, Eugene Mark
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"World at War" focuses on the conditions of warfare inside Mexico during the mid-nineteenth century, specifically from 1862 through 1867. Despite 140 years of general Euro-American fascination with the French Intervention, and with Maximilian in particular, the role of resistance among Mexicans has been ignored until relatively recently. And there has not yet been a holistic study of the various movements of resistance to the European military presence and to the Mexican Empire. This is a macro-study of three separate insurgencies, in the central states of Mexico, in Oaxaca, and in Yucatan. All were different in origin and nature from one another, whether the resistance emanated out of the rancho working class of Michoacán, the Oaxacan indigenous peasantry, or Maya separatists. In addition, the role of European and American mercenaries who joined the republican side of the war under Benito Juárez is examined. Taken as a whole, the various strands of resistance and warfare in Mexico, along with involvement by foreigners in the resistance, prevented complete pacification by French-led forces under the Empire, and led ultimately to victory for the Juarist republican cause. This is not a study of nationalism per se, but an analysis of Mexican internal conditions as they relate to warfare during the nineteenth century. At the same time, it examines the transatlantic martial connections created by the French Intervention.