Multiple myeloma is a complex disease process that has a variety of presenting symptoms. It is the most common bone cancer found in the adult, therefore it is important that primary care practitioners be able to notice the subtle physiologic changes that occur in multiple myeloma. Recent discoveries are providing hope for those who are afflicted with this incurable disease. Investigators continue to search for causes, factors that may promote tumor growth, and ways to decrease the suffering of multiple myeloma patients. This manuscript reviews research on multiple myeloma, in addition to identifying current diagnostic and treatment protocols.