MANGO (Philippine 'Carabao' var.) POWDER MADE FROM DIFFERENT DRYING SYSTEMS
Caparino, Ofero Abagon
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Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the finest tropical fruits in the world with about 75% of the world production coming from Asia. In the Philippines, mango ranks third among fruit crops after banana and pineapple based on export volume and value. Acclaimed to be one of the best worldwide, this fruit has established a good reputation in the international market. However, huge postharvest losses ranging from 5 - 87 % have been reported due mainly to inadequate preservation technologies, and improper handling and storage. In this research, a more stable product such as mango powder was investigated using a novel drying technology called Refractance Window® drying (RW), and three other commonly used drying methods, namely: freeze drying (FD), drum drying (DD) and spray drying (SD). The influence of these four drying methods on the physical properties and microstructures of mango powder was studied. RW drying can produce mango powder with quality that is comparable to freeze drying, and better than the drum and spray-dried mango powders. Water sorption characteristics and glass transition temperatures of mango powder was examined to understand water mobility within the mango solids. Physical and chemical stability of mango powder were analyzed during storage at different temperatures and by subjecting them to different packaging atmospheres. Nitrogen flush packaging was effective in preserving the ascorbic acid (AA) in mango powder at room temperature and under refrigerated conditions, while reduced percentage loss of beta carotene was observed after 6 months of storage. Regardless of packaging atmosphere, mango powder stored at 45 °C suffered discoloration as well as AA and beta carotene degradation over a period of 6 and 12 months. Mango powder has high concentration of low molecular weight sugars which causes the product to become sticky when exposed to high temperatures and humid conditions. To avoid occurrence of this phenomenon, several sticky-point temperature measuring devices were explored in the past, but there is still a need for further development. A new method to characterize the sticky phenomena in mango powder was investigated using an advanced rheometer. The developed method and protocol was found suitable to characterize the sticky point temperature of mango powder with high degree of repeatability and accuracy.