ADHD AND ODD: AN EXAMINATION OF BRAZILIAN, THAI, AND AMERICAN MOTHERS' AND FATHERS' RATINGS OF THEIR SONS AND DAUGHTERS ON THE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR INVENTORY
MetadataShow full item record
The purpose of this study was to utilize Exploratory Confirmatory Factor Analysis to examine the effect of the gender of the child (i.e., girls versus boys) as well as the gender of rater (i.e., mothers versus fathers) on ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder--inattention (ADHD-IN), ADHD hyperactivity/impulsivity (ADHD-HI), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms. In samples from the United States, Thailand, and Brazil support was found for measurement and structural invariance between mothers' and fathers' ratings of their sons and mothers' and fathers' ratings of their daughters on all symptom dimensions. Examination of latent mean differences between mothers' and father's ratings in all three samples suggest that the gender of the rater appears not to have much of an effect on gender differences observed on the ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, ODD symptoms. The second invariance analysis demonstrated invariance of like-item loading and intercepts across mothers' (i.e., mothers' ratings of their daughters and a second group of mothers' ratings of their sons) and fathers' ratings in all three samples. The latent mean differences between sons and daughters in all three samples were consistent with previous literature and suggest that gender difference between boys and girls on the ADHD-HI, ADHD-IN, and ODD symptoms cannot be explained by reporter bias.