Effects of outboard motor emissions on early development of the killifish Oryzias latipes
Koehler, Michele E.
Hardy, John T.
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Two stroke outboard engines produce large quantities of combustion emissions per liter of fuel consumed. To determine the environmental risk of outboard motor emissions (OME) to the early life stages of fish, we exposed killifish (Medaka), Oryzias latipes, embryos to water contaminated with OME. Time for larval development, incidence of larval abnormalities, and larval mortality all increased, and length of hatched larvae decreased, with exposure to increasing concentrations of OME-contaminated water. Chemical analysis using solid phase extraction, followed by gas chromatography, indicated high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the OME water. Application of these results to hypothetical lakes suggests significant risks to fish development in the case of high OME input rates to small lakes