Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Sexual and Transgender Prejudice
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Research assessing negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, as well as bisexual and transgender individuals, has revealed many commonalities in individual and systemic factors associated with these prejudices, which suggests the possibility of an underlying common factor. Variability in measurement of sexual prejudice has inhibited development of coherent attitudinal constructs. Until recently, prejudices against bisexual and transgender individuals have been largely unexamined; however, it appears likely that they are closely related to gay and lesbian prejudice but also exhibit unique forms of specific bias. Objective: To compare a first order model of sexual and transgender prejudice with a bifactor model (general non-binary with specific bisexual and transgender prejudice factors) to evaluate the existence of an underlying, general prejudice factor. Method: Individual responses to measures of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender prejudice measures in a sample of 380 adults (50% female, 80.5% completely straight) primarily from the United States and Canada were used to evaluate measurement models. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a four factor first order model of sexual and transgender prejudice provided the best representation of included measures. The bifactor model of sexual and transgender prejudice did not explain additional variance. Conclusions: Based on confirmatory factor analysis using the Modern Homonegativity Scale, Attitudes Regarding Bisexuality Scale, and Transphobia Scale, sexual and transgender prejudice can be understood as four separate but highly correlated constructs, including homonegativity (gay male/lesbian prejudice), bisexual tolerance, bisexual stability, and transgender prejudice.