A practical cross section for scattering from rough surfaces at very low grazing angles in both the forward and backward directions
Broschat, Shira L.
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In this paper we develop an extension of the small slope approximation (SSA) for scattering from randomly rough Dirichlet surfaces, which includes some multiple scattering. This extension is designated by SSA+. We focus on scattering at very low grazing angles where multiple scattering of both the incident and scattered fields is of importance. Numerical results for the SSA+ bistatic scattering cross-section for very low forward grazing angles are presented using the Gaussian roughness spectrum and for both very low forward and very low backward grazing angles using the Pierson-Moskowitz and modified power law spectra. The results are restricted to an angle of incidence of 80°. It is shown that when the lowest-order SSA gives reasonably accurate results, the SSA+ increases the accuracy up to at least the final 0.2° of grazing in the forward direction. In the backward direction, the SSA+ gives good results for the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum, but the results are less dramatic.